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秒大刀 博客

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获取MAC地址  

2011-01-05 11:10:35|  分类: C/C++ |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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    Windows平台下用C++代码取得机器的MAC地址并不是一件简单直接的事情。到目前为止,作者尚未发现有任何一个通用的100%的适用于所有Windows平台的方法可以稳定的取得MAC地址。而有些应用(比如MMORPG)则需要稳定的得到机器的MAC地址,解决方案往往是通过多种方法依次使用来提高成功率。
  • 以下方法只会返回多网卡的第一个MAC地址。
  • 网上有很多文章和源码来解决该问题,大多不全或有问题。本篇所有方法均经过整理调试,可直接使用。
  • 作者也不喜欢满篇帖代码,本篇贴代码是方便直接使用,请读者谅解。
    下面奉上几种常用的方法:

方法一:通过NetBIOS
    [Netbios is not supported on Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008, and subsequent versions of the operating system]

#include <windows.h>
#pragma comment(lib, "Netapi32.lib")

namespace
{
bool GetAdapterInfo(int adapterNum, std::string& macOUT)
{
NCB Ncb;
memset(&Ncb, 0, sizeof(Ncb));
Ncb.ncb_command = NCBRESET; // 重置网卡,以便我们可以查询
Ncb.ncb_lana_num = adapterNum;
if (Netbios(&Ncb) != NRC_GOODRET)
return false;

// 准备取得接口卡的状态块
memset(&Ncb, sizeof(Ncb), 0);
Ncb.ncb_command = NCBASTAT;
Ncb.ncb_lana_num = adapterNum;
strcpy((char *) Ncb.ncb_callname, "*");
struct ASTAT
{
ADAPTER_STATUS adapt;
NAME_BUFFER nameBuff[30];
}adapter;
memset(&adapter,sizeof(adapter), 0);
Ncb.ncb_buffer = (unsigned char *)&adapter;
Ncb.ncb_length = sizeof(adapter);
if (Netbios(&Ncb) != 0)
return false;
char acMAC[32];
sprintf(acMAC, "%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X",
int (adapter.adapt.adapter_address[0]),
int (adapter.adapt.adapter_address[1]),
int (adapter.adapt.adapter_address[2]),
int (adapter.adapt.adapter_address[3]),
int (adapter.adapt.adapter_address[4]),
int (adapter.adapt.adapter_address[5]));
macOUT = acMAC;
return true;
}
}

bool GetMacByNetBIOS(std::string& macOUT)
{
// 取得网卡列表
LANA_ENUM adapterList;
NCB Ncb;
memset(&Ncb, 0, sizeof(NCB));
Ncb.ncb_command = NCBENUM;
Ncb.ncb_buffer = (unsigned char *)&adapterList;
Ncb.ncb_length = sizeof(adapterList);
Netbios(&Ncb);

// 取得MAC
for (int i = 0; i < adapterList.length; ++i)
{
if (GetAdapterInfo(adapterList.lana[i], macOUT))
return true;
}

return false;
}

参考:


方法二:通过对控制台ipconfig /all命令重定向
#include <Windows.h>
#include <boost\regex.hpp>

namespace
{
#if 0
/// @brief 采用字符串查找来提取MAC地址
/// @remark 该方法有很大局限性,并不是所有OS返回的MAC地址前导字符串都是
///     "Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : "
bool ParseMac(const std::string& str, std::string& macOUT)
{
static const std::string beginMarkOfMAC("Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : ");
static const std::string endMarkOfMAC("\r\n");
size_t begin = str.find(beginMarkOfMAC);
if(begin != std::string::npos)
{
begin += beginMarkOfMAC.size();
size_t end = str.find(endMarkOfMAC, begin);
if(end != std::string::npos)
{
macOUT = str.substr(begin, end - begin - 1);
return true;
}
}
return false;
}
#else
/// @brief 采用boost::regex来提取MAC
bool ParseMac(const std::string& str, std::string& macOUT)
{
const static boost::regex expression(
"([0-9a-fA-F]{2})-([0-9a-fA-F]{2})-([0-9a-fA-F]{2})-([0-9a-fA-F]{2})-([0-9a-fA-F]{2})-([0-9a-fA-F]{2})", 
boost::regex::perl | boost::regex::icase);
boost::cmatch what; 
if(boost::regex_search(str.c_str(), what, expression)) 
{
macOUT = what[1] + "-" + what[2] + "-" + what[3] + "-" + what[4] + "-" + what[5] + "-" + what[6];
return true;
}
return false;
}
#endif
}

bool GetMacByCmd(std::string& macOUT)
{
bool ret = false;

//初始化返回MAC地址缓冲区
SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES sa; 
sa.nLength = sizeof(SECURITY_ATTRIBUTES); 
sa.lpSecurityDescriptor = NULL; 
sa.bInheritHandle = TRUE; 
//创建管道
HANDLE hReadPipe,hWritePipe;
if(CreatePipe(&hReadPipe, &hWritePipe, &sa, 0) == TRUE)
{
//控制命令行窗口信息
STARTUPINFO si; 
//返回进程信息
PROCESS_INFORMATION pi;
si.cb = sizeof(STARTUPINFO); 
GetStartupInfo(&si); 
si.hStdError = hWritePipe; 
si.hStdOutput = hWritePipe; 
si.wShowWindow = SW_HIDE; //隐藏命令行窗口
si.dwFlags = STARTF_USESHOWWINDOW | STARTF_USESTDHANDLES;

//创建获取命令行进程
if (CreateProcess(NULL, "ipconfig /all", NULL, NULL, TRUE, 0, NULL, NULL, &si, &pi) == TRUE) 
WaitForSingleObject(pi.hProcess, 3000); // 设置超时时间,防止Vista、Win7等操作系统卡死
unsigned long count;
CloseHandle(hWritePipe);
std::string strBuffer(1024 * 10, '\0'); // 准备足够大的缓冲区
if(ReadFile(hReadPipe, const_cast<char*>(strBuffer.data()), strBuffer.size() - 1, &count, 0) == TRUE)
{
strBuffer.resize(strBuffer.find_first_of('\0')); // 截掉缓冲区后面多余的'\0'
ret = ParseMac(strBuffer, macOUT);//提取MAC地址串
}
CloseHandle(pi.hThread); 
CloseHandle(pi.hProcess); 
}
CloseHandle(hWritePipe); // VS2010下调试,此处会有“An invalid handle was specified”的中断,直接运行正常,原因未知。VS2008上正常。
CloseHandle(hReadPipe);
}
return ret;
}

参考:
方法三:通过SNMP(简单网络访问协议)
#include <snmp.h>
#pragma comment(lib, "snmpapi.lib")
#pragma comment(lib, "Ws2_32.lib")

bool GetMacBySNMP(std::string& macOUT)
{
bool ret = false;
WSADATA WinsockData;
if (WSAStartup(MAKEWORD(2, 0), &WinsockData) != 0) 
return false;

// Load the SNMP dll and get the addresses of the functions necessary
const HINSTANCE m_dll = LoadLibrary("inetmib1.dll");
if (m_dll < (HINSTANCE) HINSTANCE_ERROR)
return false;

const PFNSNMPEXTENSIONINIT f_SnmpExtensionInit = (PFNSNMPEXTENSIONINIT) GetProcAddress(m_dll, "SnmpExtensionInit");
const PFNSNMPEXTENSIONINITEX f_SnmpExtensionInitEx = (PFNSNMPEXTENSIONINITEX) GetProcAddress(m_dll, "SnmpExtensionInitEx");
const PFNSNMPEXTENSIONQUERY f_SnmpExtensionQuery = (PFNSNMPEXTENSIONQUERY) GetProcAddress(m_dll, "SnmpExtensionQuery");
const PFNSNMPEXTENSIONTRAP f_SnmpExtensionTrap = (PFNSNMPEXTENSIONTRAP) GetProcAddress(m_dll, "SnmpExtensionTrap");
HANDLE pollForTrapEvent;
AsnObjectIdentifier supportedView;
f_SnmpExtensionInit(GetTickCount(), &pollForTrapEvent, &supportedView);

// Initialize the variable list to be retrieved by f_SnmpExtensionQuery
const AsnObjectIdentifier MIB_NULL = { 0, 0 };

RFC1157VarBind varBind[2];
varBind[0].name = MIB_NULL;
varBind[1].name = MIB_NULL;

RFC1157VarBindList varBindList;
varBindList.list = varBind;

UINT OID_ifEntryType[] = { 1, 3, 6, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 3 };
UINT OID_ifEntryNum[] = { 1, 3, 6, 1, 2, 1, 2, 1 };
UINT OID_ipMACEntAddr[] = { 1, 3, 6, 1, 2, 1, 2, 2, 1, 6 };
AsnObjectIdentifier MIB_ifMACEntAddr = { sizeof(OID_ipMACEntAddr) / sizeof(UINT), OID_ipMACEntAddr };
AsnObjectIdentifier MIB_ifEntryType = { sizeof(OID_ifEntryType) / sizeof(UINT), OID_ifEntryType };
AsnObjectIdentifier MIB_ifEntryNum = { sizeof(OID_ifEntryNum) / sizeof(UINT), OID_ifEntryNum };

// Copy in the OID to find the number of entries in the Inteface table
varBindList.len = 1;        // Only retrieving one item
SnmpUtilOidCpy(&varBind[0].name, &MIB_ifEntryNum);
AsnInteger errorStatus;
AsnInteger errorIndex;
f_SnmpExtensionQuery(ASN_RFC1157_GETNEXTREQUEST, &varBindList, &errorStatus, &errorIndex);
varBindList.len = 2;

// Copy in the OID of ifType, the type of interface
SnmpUtilOidCpy(&varBind[0].name, &MIB_ifEntryType);

// Copy in the OID of ifPhysAddress, the address
SnmpUtilOidCpy(&varBind[1].name, &MIB_ifMACEntAddr);

for(int j = 0; j < varBind[0].value.asnValue.number; j++)
{
// Submit the query.  Responses will be loaded into varBindList.
// We can expect this call to succeed a # of times corresponding to the # of adapters reported to be in the system
if(f_SnmpExtensionQuery(ASN_RFC1157_GETNEXTREQUEST, &varBindList, &errorStatus, &errorIndex) == FALSE)
continue;
// Confirm that the proper type has been returned
if(SnmpUtilOidNCmp(&varBind[0].name, &MIB_ifEntryType, MIB_ifEntryType.idLength) != 0)
continue;
// Type 6 describes ethernet interfaces
if(varBind[0].value.asnValue.number != 6) 
continue;
// Confirm that we have an address here
if(SnmpUtilOidNCmp(&varBind[1].name, &MIB_ifMACEntAddr, MIB_ifMACEntAddr.idLength) != 0)
continue;
if(varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream == NULL)
continue;
// Ignore all dial-up networking adapters
if ((varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[0] == 0x44)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[1] == 0x45)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[2] == 0x53)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[3] == 0x54)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[4] == 0x00)) 
continue;
// Ignore NULL addresses returned by other network interfaces
if ((varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[0] == 0x00)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[1] == 0x00)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[2] == 0x00)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[3] == 0x00)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[4] == 0x00)
&& (varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[5] == 0x00)) 
continue;
char buf[32];
sprintf(buf, "%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X",
varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[0],
varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[1],
varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[2],
varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[3],
varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[4],
varBind[1].value.asnValue.address.stream[5]);
macOUT = buf;
ret = true;
break;
}

// Free the bindings
SnmpUtilVarBindFree(&varBind[0]);
SnmpUtilVarBindFree(&varBind[1]);
return ret;
}
方法四:通过GetAdaptersInfo函数(适用于Windows 2000及以上版本)
#include <winsock2.h>
#include <iphlpapi.h>
#pragma comment(lib, "IPHLPAPI.lib")

bool GetMacByGetAdaptersInfo(std::string& macOUT)
{
bool ret = false;

ULONG ulOutBufLen = sizeof(IP_ADAPTER_INFO);
PIP_ADAPTER_INFO pAdapterInfo = (IP_ADAPTER_INFO*)malloc(sizeof(IP_ADAPTER_INFO));
if(pAdapterInfo == NULL)
return false;
// Make an initial call to GetAdaptersInfo to get the necessary size into the ulOutBufLen variable
if(GetAdaptersInfo(pAdapterInfo, &ulOutBufLen) == ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW) 
{
free(pAdapterInfo);
pAdapterInfo = (IP_ADAPTER_INFO *)malloc(ulOutBufLen);
if (pAdapterInfo == NULL) 
return false;
}

if(GetAdaptersInfo(pAdapterInfo, &ulOutBufLen) == NO_ERROR)
{
for(PIP_ADAPTER_INFO pAdapter = pAdapterInfo; pAdapter != NULL; pAdapter = pAdapter->Next)
{
// 确保是以太网
if(pAdapter->Type != MIB_IF_TYPE_ETHERNET)
continue;
// 确保MAC地址的长度为 00-00-00-00-00-00
if(pAdapter->AddressLength != 6)
continue;
char acMAC[32];
sprintf(acMAC, "%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X",
int (pAdapter->Address[0]),
int (pAdapter->Address[1]),
int (pAdapter->Address[2]),
int (pAdapter->Address[3]),
int (pAdapter->Address[4]),
int (pAdapter->Address[5]));
macOUT = acMAC;
ret = true;
break;
}
}

free(pAdapterInfo);
return ret;
}

参考:


方法五:通过GetAdaptersAddresses函数(适用于Windows XP及以上版本)
#include <winsock2.h>
#include <iphlpapi.h>
#pragma comment(lib, "IPHLPAPI.lib")

bool GetMacByGetAdaptersAddresses(std::string& macOUT)
{
bool ret = false;

ULONG outBufLen = sizeof(IP_ADAPTER_ADDRESSES);
PIP_ADAPTER_ADDRESSES pAddresses = (IP_ADAPTER_ADDRESSES*)malloc(outBufLen);
if (pAddresses == NULL) 
return false;
// Make an initial call to GetAdaptersAddresses to get the necessary size into the ulOutBufLen variable
if(GetAdaptersAddresses(AF_UNSPEC, 0, NULL, pAddresses, &outBufLen) == ERROR_BUFFER_OVERFLOW)
{
free(pAddresses);
pAddresses = (IP_ADAPTER_ADDRESSES*)malloc(outBufLen);
if (pAddresses == NULL) 
return false;
}

if(GetAdaptersAddresses(AF_UNSPEC, 0, NULL, pAddresses, &outBufLen) == NO_ERROR)
{
// If successful, output some information from the data we received
for(PIP_ADAPTER_ADDRESSES pCurrAddresses = pAddresses; pCurrAddresses != NULL; pCurrAddresses = pCurrAddresses->Next)
{
// 确保MAC地址的长度为 00-00-00-00-00-00
if(pCurrAddresses->PhysicalAddressLength != 6)
continue;
char acMAC[32];
sprintf(acMAC, "%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X-%02X",
int (pCurrAddresses->PhysicalAddress[0]),
int (pCurrAddresses->PhysicalAddress[1]),
int (pCurrAddresses->PhysicalAddress[2]),
int (pCurrAddresses->PhysicalAddress[3]),
int (pCurrAddresses->PhysicalAddress[4]),
int (pCurrAddresses->PhysicalAddress[5]));
macOUT = acMAC;
ret = true;
break;
}

free(pAddresses);
return ret;
}
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